Mixing refers to composing an operating system for specific use cases. While the default Clear Linux* OS for Intel® Architecture provides options to install bundles for various server capabilities, some developers may wish to either augment the operating system itself with functionality from their own packages or modify the structure of current bundles to cater to their particular needs.
To start working with the mixer tools, you need a recent image of Clear Linux with the mixer bundle installed. If the bundle is not yet installed, you can add it with the swupd bundle-add command as follows:
sudo swupd bundle-add mixer
Current mixing workflow
There are two different workflows to create your own mix.
The following workflow applies if the mix includes your own RPMs:
- Create a workspace
- Generate the starting point for your mix
- Edit builder.conf
- Create or locate RPMs for the mix
- Import RPMs into workspace
- Create a local RPM repo
- List, edit, create, add, remove, or validate bundles
- Build the bundle chroots
- Create an update
- Create an image
Alternatively, the following workflow applies if the mix only uses Clear Linux content.
- Create a workspace
- Generate the starting point for your mix
- Edit builder.conf
- List, edit, create, add, remove, or validate bundles
- Build the bundle chroots
- Create an update
- Create an image
The following sections contain detailed information on every step of these workflows.
Create a workspace
Use the following command to create an empty directory in your Clear Linux image to use as a workspace for mixing:
This guide assumes your workspace location is /home/clr/mix.
Generate the starting point for your mix
In your workspace, initialize mixer with the following command:
This command initializes your workspace so you can make a mix at version 10 based on the latest released upstream Clear Linux version. If a builder.conf file is not already present in your workspace, mixer creates a default configuration file. Additionally, mixer creates several version and tracking files, and two bundle directories: local-bundles and upstream-bundles.
If you wish to start with a different version of upstream Clear Linux or a different initial mix version, you can specify these options as flags. For example:
mixer init --clear-version 21060 --mix-version 100
Additionally, to build a mix with your own custom RPMs, use the optional --local-rpms flag, for example:
mixer init --local-rpms
This command creates the local-yum and local-rpms directories in your mix workspace and adds their paths to the generated builder.conf. If the configuration file already exists, you must add the paths manually. For more information on using these directories or setting them up manually, see Create or locate RPMs for the mix.
If all upstream Clear Linux bundles will be part of the mix, you can easily add them all during initialization with the optional --all-upstream flag. For example:
mixer init --all-upstream
Finally, you may want to track the contents of your mixer workspace with a git repository. This is a great way to track changes to your mix’s content or to revert to earlier versions if something goes wrong. Mixer can set this up automatically with the optional --git flag, for example:
mixer init --git
You can use any or all of the above optional flags at the same time, for example:
mixer init --clear-version 21060 --mix-version 100 --local-rpms --all-upstream --git
To configure the mixer tool, edit the builder.conf as needed.
The file builder.conf is read automatically from the current workspace directory. Use the --config flag during initialization to specify an alternate path to the file as needed.
The builder.conf file has different sections, for example:
- The [Builder] section provides the mixer tools with the required configuration options. This section defines the path where the generated bundles and update metadata are published.
- The [swupd] section contains specific update parameters. The swupd-server creates an update using said specific update parameters.
Edit the configuration file according to your needs with the command:
Your version of the builder.conf file should resemble the following example:
[Mixer] LOCAL_BUNDLE_DIR=/home/clr/mix/local-bundles [Builder] SERVER_STATE_DIR=/home/clr/mix/update BUNDLE_DIR=/home/clr/mix/mix-bundles YUM_CONF=/home/clr/mix/.yum-mix.conf CERT=/home/clr/mix/Swupd_Root.pem VERSIONS_PATH=/home/clr/mix [swupd] BUNDLE=os-core-update CONTENTURL=<URL where the content will be hosted> VERSIONURL=<URL where the version of the mix will be hosted> FORMAT=1 [Server] debuginfo_banned=true debuginfo_lib=/usr/lib/debug/ debuginfo_src=/usr/src/debug/
The following variables require further explanation:
- The LOCAL_BUNDLE_DIR variable sets the path where mixer stores the local bundle definition files. These bundle definition files include any new, original bundles you create, along with any edited versions of upstream Clear Linux bundles.
- The SERVER_STATE_DIR variable sets the path for the output of the mix content. Mixer automatically creates the path for you, but the path can be set to any location. In this example, we use the workspace directory.
- The BUNDLE_DIR variable sets the path where mixer temporarily stores the bundle definition files while building chroots. Only the legacy chroot-builder uses this path. By default, mixer does not generate this directory until the directory is needed. In our example, the path is set to /home/clr/mix/mix-bundles. The new chroot-builder does not generate the folder at all.
- The YUM_CONF variable sets the path where mixer automatically generates the .yum-mix.conf yum configuration file. The yum configuration file points the chroot-builder to the path where the RPMs are stored.
- The CERT variable sets the path where mixer stores the Swupd_Root.pem certificate file. The chroot-builder needs the certificate file to sign the root Manifest.MoM file to provide security for content verification. The value of the CERT variable can point to a different certificate. The chroot-builder inserts the certificate specified in this value into the /os-core-update/usr/share/clear/update-ca/ path. The software update client uses this certificate to verify the Manifest.MoM file’s signature. For now, we strongly recommend that you do not modify this line, as the certificate that swupd expects needs to have a very specific configuration to sign and verify properly. Mixer automatically generates the certificate, if you do not provide the path to an existing one, and signs the Manifest.MoM file to provide security for the updated content you create.
- The CONTENTURL and VERSIONURL variables set the domain or IP address where swupd looks for your update content and the corresponding version. You must set these variables to the domain or IP-address of the server hosting the update content. You can use any web server to host your update content. To learn how to install and configure web server using Clear Linux, visit Creating a Clear Linux based web server. For our example, the web update content within the SERVER_STATE_DIR directory is located here: /home/clr/mix/update/www. If the web server is on the same machine as this directory, you can create a symlink to the directory in your web server’s document root to easily host the content. These URLs are embedded in images created for your mix. The swupd-client looks at these URLs to determine if a new version is available and the location from where to download the updated content. These links are equivalent to the Clear Linux update page but for the mix.
- The FORMAT variable relates to format bumps. To learn more about the FORMAT option, refer to Format version and the format bumps wiki. For now, leave the FORMAT value unchanged.
- The VERSIONS_PATH variable sets the path for the mix version and upstream Clear Linux version’s two state files: mixversion and upstreamversion. Mixer creates both files for you when you set up the workspace.
If you are working only with Clear Linux bundles, then skip to List, edit, create, add, remove, or validate bundles.
Create or locate RPMs for the mix
If you create RPMs from scratch, you can use autospec, mock, rpmbuild, or similar tools to build them. If the RPMs are not built on Clear Linux, ensure your configuration and toolchain builds them correctly for Clear Linux, or else there is no guarantee they will be compatible. For more information on building the RPMs properly, refer to our build RPMs instructions.
Import RPMs into workspace
Create a local-rpms directory in your workspace, for example, /home/clr/mix/local-rpms.
Copy the RPMs into the directory you created.
Add the following line to your builder.conf file:
Mixer uses this directory to find the RPMs to build a local RPM repo for yum to use.
Create a local RPM repo
Create an empty directory in your workspace named local-yum.
Add the path to your builder.conf file:
With these values configured, generate the yum repo with the following command:
sudo mixer add-rpms
After the tool exits, you should see the RPMs and a repository data directory in /home/clr/mix/local-yum. If the RPMs are not all in this local-yum directory, check to ensure that the RPM files are valid and not corrupt.
List, edit, create, add, remove, or validate bundles
The bundles in the mix are specified in the mix bundle list. Mixer stores this list as a flat file called mixbundles in the path set by the VERSIONS_PATH variable of the builder.conf file. Mixer automatically generates the mixbundles list file during initialization. Mixer reads and writes the bundle list file when you change the bundles of the mix.
List the bundles in the mix
To view the bundles already in the mix, enter the following command:
mixer bundle list
This command shows a list of every bundle in the mix. Bundles can include other bundles. Those nested bundles can themselves include other bundles. When listing bundles with this command, mixer automatically recurses through the includes to show every single bundle in the mix.
If you see an unexpected bundle in the list, that bundle is probably included in another bundle. Use the --tree flag to get a better view of how a bundle ended up in the mix, for example:
mixer bundle list --tree
This command shows a visual representation of the inclusion relationships between the bundles in the mix.
Bundles fall into two categories: upstream and local.
Upstream bundles are those provided by Clear Linux.
Mixer automatically downloads and caches upstream bundle definition files. These definition files are stored in the upstream-bundles directory in the workspace. Do not modify the files in this directory. This directory is simply a mirror for mixer to use.
The mixer tool automatically caches the bundles for the Clear Linux version configured in the upstreamversion file. Mixer also cleans up old versions once they are no longer needed. You can see the available upstream bundles with the following command:
mixer bundle list upstream
Local bundles are bundles that you create, or are edited versions of upstream bundles.
Local bundle definition files live in the local-bundles directory. The LOCAL_BUNDLE_DIR variable sets the path of this directory in your builder.conf configuration file. For this example, the path is /home/clr/mix/local-bundles. You can see the available local bundles with the following command:
mixer bundle list local
Both the local and upstream bundle list commands accept the --tree flag to show a visual representation of the inclusion relationships between the bundles in the mix.
Edit the bundles in the mix
Mixer always checks local bundles first and the upstream bundles second.
Therefore, bundles in the local-bundles directory always take precedence over any upstream bundles that have the same name.
This precedence enables you to edit upstream bundles. The local, edited version of the bundle overrides the bundle version found upstream.
For example, to edit the bundle1 definition file, we use the following command:
mixer bundle edit bundle1
If bundle1 is found in your local bundles, mixer edits this bundle definition file. If instead bundle1 is only found upstream, mixer copies the bundle definition file from upstream into your local-bundles directory first.
In both cases, mixer launches your default editor to edit the file. When the editor closes, mixer automatically validates the edited bundle file and reports any errors found. If mixer finds an error, you can edit the file as-is, revert and edit, or skip and move on to the next bundle. If you skip a file, mixer saves a backup of the original file with the .orig suffix. Because mixer always checks your local bundles first, edited copies of an upstream bundle always take precedence over their upstream counterpart. You can edit multiple bundles with the following command:
mixer bundle edit bundle1 bundle2 [bundle3 ...]
Create bundles for the mix
To create a totally new bundle, the bundle name you specify cannot exist upstream. If that is the case, create a new-bundle with the following command:
mixer bundle edit new-bundle
This command generates a blank template in local-bundles with the new-bundle filename. Mixer launches the editor for you to fill out the bundle and performs validation when you exit the editor. Add your package or packages to the bundle definition file to define the packages to install as part of the bundle.
The mixer bundle edit command accepts multiple bundles at once. Thus, you can create multiple new bundles in a single command, for example:
mixer bundle edit new-bundle1 new-bundle2 [new-bundle3 ...]
Add bundles to the mix
Add bundle1 to your mix with the following command:
mixer bundle add bundle1
This command adds the specified bundles to the mix bundles list stored in your mixbundles file. For each bundle you add, mixer checks your local and upstream bundles to ensure the added bundles actually exist. If mixer cannot find the bundle, it reports back an error. Additionally, when mixer adds a bundle, it tells you whether the bundle is local or upstream. Alternatively, you can learn this information with the mixer bundle list command. Refer to List the bundles in the mix.
To add multiple bundles at once, use the following command:
mixer bundle add bundle1 bundle2 [bundle3 ...]
Remove bundles from the mix
Remove bundle1 from your mix with the following command:
mixer bundle remove bundle1
This command removes bundle1 from the mix bundle list stored in your mixbundles file. By default, this command does not remove the bundle definition file from your local bundles. To completely remove a bundle, including its local bundle definition file, use the following command with the --local flag:
mixer bundle remove --local bundle1
By default, removing a local bundle file with this command removes the bundle from the mix as well. To only remove the local bundle definition file, use the following command with the --mix=false flag:
mixer bundle remove --local --mix=false bundle1
If you remove a local, edited version of an upstream bundle and keep the bundle in the mix, the mix then references the original upstream version of the bundle.
On the other hand, if you remove a bundle that is only found locally but keep the bundle in the mix bundles list, mixer will not find a valid bundle definition file and will produce an error.
Validate the bundles in the mix
Mixer performs basic validation on all bundles when used throughout the system.
Mixer checks the validity of the bundle’s syntax and name. Optionally, you can run this validation manually on bundle1 with the following command:
mixer bundle validate bundle1
This command can be useful in many circumstances. One example is when importing already-existing local bundles from other projects.
If you use the optional --strict flag, the command additionally checks if the rest of the bundle header fields can be parsed, if the bundle header fields are non-empty, and if the bundle header Title field and the bundle filename match. Perform a strict validation of bundle1 with the following command:
mixer bundle validate --strict bundle1
Validate multiple bundles with the following command:
mixer bundle validate bundle1 bundle2 [bundle3 ...]
Managing bundles with Git
If you initialized your workspace to be tracked as a git repository with the mixer init –git command, it might be useful to apply a git commit after you modify the mix bundle list or edit a bundle definition file.
All the mixer bundle commands in the previous sections support an optional --git flag. This flag automatically applies a git commit when the command completes, for example:
mixer bundle remove --git bundle1
Build the bundle chroots
To build all the chroots based on the defined bundles, use the following command in your workspace:
sudo mixer build chroots
If the mix has many bundles, this step might take some time.
By default, mixer uses the legacy chroot-builder. In this mode, mixer automatically gathers the bundle definition files for the bundles in the mix into a mix-bundles directory. The directory’s path is set in the BUNDLE_DIR variable in the builder.conf. Do not edit these files. Mixer automatically deletes the contents of the mix-bundles directory before repopulating the directory on-the-fly as mixer builds the chroots.
We have added a new chroot-builder to the mixer tool itself. While this is currently an experimental feature, you should use the new chroot-builder. To use the new chroot-builder, use the following command with the --new-chroots flag:
sudo mixer build chroots --new-chroots
We will soon deprecate the legacy chroot-builder. When we do, mixer will use the new version automatically.
Create an update
Create an update with the following command:
sudo mixer build update
When the build completes, you can find the mix update content under /home/clr/mix/update/www/VER. In our example, the update content is found in /home/clr/mix/update/www/<MIXVERSION>. <MIXVERSION> is the defined mix version, which is 10 by default.
By default, mixer uses the legacy swupd-server to generate the update content. However, we have built a new implementation into the mixer tool itself. While this is currently an experimental feature, you should use the new swupd-server. To use the the new swupd-server, use the following command with the --new-swupd flag:
sudo mixer build update --new-swupd
We will soon deprecate the legacy swupd-server. When we do, mixer will use the new version automatically.
Mixer creates all the content needed to make a fully usable mix with this step. However, only zero packs are automatically generated. Zero packs are the content needed to go from nothing to the mix version for which you just built the content.
You can create optional delta packs, which allow the transition from one mix version to another, with the following command:
sudo mixer-pack-maker.sh --to <MIX_VERSION> --from <PAST_VERSION> -S /home/clr/mix/update
The pack-maker generates all delta packs for the bundles changed from PAST_VERSION to MIX_VERSION. If your STATE_DIR is in a different location, specify the location with the -S flag. Mixer cannot create delta packs for the first build because the update is from version 0. Version 0 implicitly has no content. Thus, mixer can generate no deltas.
For subsequent builds, you can run mixer-pack-maker.sh to generate delta content between them, for example: 10 to 20.
Create an image
Since mixer uses the ister tool to create a bootable image from your updated content, we must first configure the ister tool. To configure the image ister creates, we need the ister configuration file. Obtain a copy with the default values from the ister package with the following command:
sudo cp /usr/share/defaults/ister/ister.json relase-image-config.json
For reference, you can inspect the Clear Linux ister configuration file used for releases.
Edit the configuration file to include all bundles you want preinstalled in the image. Users can install the bundles in the mix that are not included in the configuration file with the following command:
sudo swupd bundle-add bundle1
Keeping the list of bundles in the configuration file small allows for a smaller image size. For the minimal base image, the list is:
"Bundles": ["os-core", "os-core-update", "kernel-native"]
Next, set the Version field to the mix version that you want the content mixer to use to build the image. ister allows you to build an image from any mix version that you have built, not just from the current version. In our example so far, Version is set to 10.
With the ister tool configured, build the image with the following command:
sudo mixer build image --format 1
Mixer automatically looks for the release-image-config.json file, but you can freely choose the filename. To use a different name, simply pass the --template flag when creating your image, for example:
sudo mixer build image --format 1 --template path/to/file.config
By default, ister uses the format version of the build machine it runs on. Therefore, if the format you are building differs from the format of the Clear Linux OS you are building on, you must use the --format flag. Find the current format version of your OS with the following command:
sudo cat /usr/share/defaults/swupd/format
Update the next mix version information
Increment the mix version number for the next mix with the following command:
mixer versions update
This command automatically updates the mix version stored in the mixversion file, incrementing it by 10. To increment by a different amount, use the --increment flag, for example:
mixer versions update --increment 100
Alternatively, to set the mix version to a specific value, use the --mix-version flag, for example:
mixer versions update --mix-version 200
The mixer versions update command does not allow you to set the mix version to a value less than its current value. The mix version is expected to always increase, even if the new mix is undoing an earlier change.
If you have been tracking your workspace with git, you can restore the mix to an earlier state. However, be careful when “rewriting history” if you have published the mix content to users already.
Use the following command with the the --upstream-version flag to update the upstream version of Clear Linux used as a base for the mix:
mixer versions update --upstream-version 21070
This command also accepts the keyword “latest”:
mixer versions update --upstream-version latest
This command sets the upstream version to the latest released version of upstream Clear Linux within the same format version. The mixer versions update command does not allow you to set an upstream version to a value that crosses an upstream format boundary. Such values require a “format bump” build, which is currently a manual process. Refer to Format version for more information.
Optionally, you can learn which mix version or upstream version you are currently using with the following command:
At this point, you can continue to iterate through the workflows and make modifications as needed, for example:
Add, remove, or modify bundles.
Build the chroots with:
sudo mixer build chroots
Build and update with:
sudo mixer build update
Optionally, you can create delta packs with:
sudo mixer-pack-maker.sh --to <NEWVERSION> --from <PREV_VERSION> -S /home/clr/mix/update
The Format variable set in the builder.conf file can be more precisely referred to as an OS compatibility epoch. Versions of the OS within a given epoch are fully compatible and can update to any other version within that epoch. Across the Format boundary, the OS has changed in such a way that updating from build M in format X, to build N in format Y will not work. Generally, this scenario occurs when the software updater or software manifests change in a way that they are no longer compatible with the previous update scheme.
Using a format increment, we insure pre- and co-requisite changes flow out with proper ordering. The updated client only ever updates to the latest release in its respective format version, unless overridden by command line flags. Thus, we can guarantee that all clients update to the final version in their given format. The given format must contain all the changes needed to understand the content built in the subsequent format. Only after reaching the final release in the old format can a client continue to update to releases in the new format.
When creating a custom mix, the format version should start at “1” or some known number. The format version should increment only when a compatibility breakage is introduced. Normal updates, like updating a software package for example, do not require a format increment.